Jeddah is the second largest city after Riyadh, it is the main port of the Kingdom on the Red Sea and main gate through
which most of the pilgrims arrive by air and sea to perform Umrah, Haj or to visit the two holy mosques.
Area inhabited is more than 1,500 km, and population is more than one and half million. Jeddah is an industrial and active commercial
center, with modern features, squares and courtyards. It is an important tourism center, with an eighty kilometer
long beautiful corniche on the Red Sea coast. Jeddah also comprises the King Abdul Aziz University, King Abdul Aziz International Airport and Jeddah Islamic Port. King Fahd Fountain is located inside the Red Sea, near the coast, is an outstanding feature of the port of Jeddah particularly during the night when it sends beautiful colored water up to two hundred and sixty meters.
The name Jeddah meaning the "Ancestor of Women" is attributable to the tomb in the city which is believed to belong to Eve. Today, it is not however possible to see that interesting place since the Saudi Arabian government had the tomb destroyed for the reason that it would instigate perversions in the religion. Jeddah which gained importance during the Ottoman rule, was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hejaz and later came under the British control. It joined the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1927.
The Region's Old History
Jeddah, the smiling face of the Saudi Arabia Kingdom and the Port of Mecca, is one of the oldest cities in the Old History;
it was known since about 2500 year, so it is an old city which the Old History mentioned that it was meadows for the nineteenth
grandfather of the God's Prophet (Kada'aa), which was inhabited by Kada'aa People after the collapse of Maareb Dam in 1115 BC.
And it was said that Thamoud People lived in Jeddah before Kada'aa for there was found a Thamoudian engraving in Bouweib Valley
to the north eastern of Jeddah. And it goes back to before Alexander The Great who visited it between (323 and 356 BC) according
to some telling.
The Region's History after Islam
Islam was brought to Jeddah in the era of the God's Prophet; and during the beginning of the Islamic State, Successor
Othman Bin Affan wanted to have access to the sea for its commerce so he chose Jeddah for this purpose in 26 HIJRI 646 AD.
Jeddah continued under the influence of the continuous Islamic succession starting with the Ommiad State reaching Egypt Kings.
And Jeddah fence were built by Sultan Kansouh El Ghouri in (915 HIJRI - 1509 AD), who was the last of the Seljuks Kings who ruled
Jeddah in the tenth HIJRI century, and in that date the reign was shifted from Egypt Kings to Ottoman State and ended with the
siege of King Abed El Aziz Al Suoud for Jeddah City where it was surrendered after signing the surrender agreement between King
Abed El Aziz Al Suoud and Sheriff Ali Bin El Hussein in year 1344 HIJRI - 1925 AD. As the political stability took place under
the reign of the Saudi Rule under the guidance of King Abed El Aziz Al Suoud (mercy be upon his soul) entered a new stage of
development and prosperity.
The Modern History
After uniting the Saudi Arabia Kingdom in (1351 HIJRI, 1932 AD), Jeddah entered a new chronological period which is related to
the oil discovery and extracting in (1359 HIJRI, 1938 AD) in the Eastern Region of the Kingdom. And due to its strategic location,
it was influenced with the new development means, where modern buildings and giant constructions were built, as well as projects of
transportation, telecommunication, and health, and the infra structure and the public utilities started largely during the last decades;
so Jeddah features changed from a small and simple city to a big city following the Renaissance and Development Age with the Kingdom's