Situated in north-western Saudi Arabia, Tabouk is the provincial capital and headquarters of the Governor of the Tabuk region, local councils and branches of various governmental departments. The Tabouk region stretches north to Halat Ammar and Bir Bin Hammas; south to Omluj; east to Taima and Markaz; and west to the Red Sea. It is the northern gateway to the Kingdom, close to the Jordanian border. It is the largest city in North Western Saudi Arabia and is mainly a military town.
It is spread over an area of 104,000 square kilometers. The region's ancient history dates back to 1500 BC. It is believed that the region of Tabouk was the land of Madyan and Dadan mentioned in the Holy books. It was known by the name "Taboo" when, with the town of Al Ola, it was the capital a prosperous state in the region.
Tabuk is 2,200 feet above sea level. Standing high above sea level, the town of Tabouk enjoys an equitable climate. The climate in this area is mild in the summer when the average temperature reaches 29 degrees Celsius. During winter the average is 17 degrees Celsius although it can some times fall below zero. There is little rain in the area with an annual average of only 50 mm. Western, northwestern, and southwestern winds blow all year round.
The city has a long historical background, the marks of which can be still seen today. Tabuk Fort was built by the Ottaman Turks, Circa 1655 and has been recently restored by the Saudi Government. Tabouk was also one of the major stops on the Hejaz Railway and is in the region of Lawrence of Arabia fame. Tabouk is a town of great antiquity. In 500 B.C. Tabouk (then known as Taboo) was, with Al-Ola, the capital of Al-Ayaneyean. Tabouk is rich in historic monuments dating from before and after the time of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. Today, it happily combines an egregious past with the benefits of modern development.